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Central nervous system

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Create a 2 pages paper that discusses this week you learned about the central nervous system, i.e., brain structure and neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters Identify the Neurotransmitter Location of Neurotransmitter Effect of Neurotransmitter Function of Neurotransmitter Possible mental health, emotional, behavioral, or physical issues resulting from too much or too little of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACH)Primarily located in the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, mostly found in certain organs found in the parasympathetic nervous system.Causes excitement in the brain, as well as the autonomic nervous system. Its effects on other systems are rather inhibitory. It also facilitates muscle movement (Elias & Saucier, 2005). Aids muscle movements, facilitates enhanced levels of memory capacity, as well as cognitive functioning.

In case of production of low amounts of ACH, Alzheimer’s disease may be the consequent. Alzheimer’s is characterized by in-cognitive body functioning and inconsistent muscle movements. Glutamate Primarily located in the brain and spinal cord.Causes excitement in the brain. Conducts excitatory purposes and aids high levels of memory.Reduced levels of glutamate cause Bipolar Disorder, which is a mood disorder that entails longs periods of intense depression that alternate with manic episodes that encompass extreme excitement. Bipolar Disorder is formerly referred to as manic depression. Manic experiences entail rapid and sudden escalation of emotional state that entails extreme euphoria, physical energy, excitement as rapid speech, as well as thoughts. Major depression episodes entail persistent and extreme levels of depression and stress. Glutamate also has the capacity to increase or reduce strength. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)Located in the brain and spinal cord.Acts as the chief and fast inhibitory synapse in nearly all regions of the brain (Saladin, 2009). The neurotransmitter .used in enhancing or deterring actions such as eating, aggression and sleep.GABA modifies a number of behaviors that span from eating to aggression.

High amounts of GABA in the system facilitate sedation or tranquility. Most tranquilizers and sedatives such as Valium contain GABA. Alcohol also contains GABA, which is credited with behavioral alterations after alcohol intake. Dopamine(DA)Located in the brain.Acts as an inhibitory, as well as an excitatory element in the brain. Plays an integral role in controlling movement, controls aspects of pleasure within the body through reward attention (Saladin, 2009).

Side effects associated with using Dopamine include among others Severe allergic reactions evidenced through hives. breathing difficulties. rash. tightness in the chest. itching. swelling of the tongue, mouth, lips, face. chest pain. dizziness. an irregular heartbeat. pain, discoloration, or swelling from the points of injection. Dysfunctions in the dopamine system also result in disorders and diseases such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease (Elias & Saucier, 2005). Serotonin Found in the brain and spinal cord.Primarily acts as an inhibitory agent.Serotonin plays a key role in the inhibition of eating, sleeping, depression, mood and pain. In humans being excessive quantities of Serotonin result in states such as excessive vomiting anxiety, aggression, appetite, migraines, depression, pain and sleep.

Endorphins Found in the brain and spinal cord Typically acts as an inhibitory agent, except in hippocampus.Results in the suppression of pain, facilitates pleasurable feelings, placebos and enhances appetite.Endorphins are recognized for playing an essential role in the depersonalization disorder. Antagonists of an opioid such naloxone and naltrexone are notable as having the capacity to treat depersonalization successfully (Saladin, 2009). The effects of endorphins are remarkable in persons suffering from depersonalization. Symptoms of depersonalization disappear entirely upon the administration of endorphins, which results in remarkable recovery levels. For instance, naloxone’s therapeutic effects are assertive of the integral role of endogenous opiods in the pathogenesis of the disorder (depersonalization).


Elias, L. J, & Saucier, D. M. (2005). Neuropsychology: Clinical and experimental foundations. Boston: Pearson.Saladin, K. S. (2009). .Anatomy and physiology: The Unity of form and function. New York: McGraw Hill.


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